Effect of biogas technology on nutrient flows for small- and medium-scale pig farms in Vietnam

Cập nhật vào ngày: 23 / 07 / 2021

Increased demand for meat products has led to increased livestock production in Vietnam, which now risks environmental pollution from inappropriate animal manure management on livestock farms. Biogas technology is generally considered an efficient solution for such farms to produce renewable biofuel for use in the household and to reduce the pollution impact from animal waste. However, with biogas technology, farmers may reduce their use of manure for fertilising crops. This field survey investigated nutrient flows on small- and medium-scale livestock farms with and without biogas in Northern Vietnam, in order to identify existing problems and possibilities for sustainable livestock production. A field survey was conducted on 12 pig farms with biogas and 12 pig farms without biogas in Quoc Oai district, Hanoi city. In general, the non-biogas pig farms used on average 3.8 ton compost and 3.1 ton fresh solid manure ha-1 crop-1 for each of three crops typically grown per year on their arable land. They discharged on average 16 % of the total manure produced into the environment in liquid form through the public sewage system. On biogas pig farms, the use of fresh solid manure for crops and discharge of liquid manure was lower, as manure was used to produce biogas. However, excessive use of washing water on several of these farms resulted in very dilute slurry (solid manure:water ratio 1:11) entering the biogas digester. This lowered the retention time in the digester (below the optimum range of 35–55 days), leading to low biogas production rates and possible accumulation of sediment. The digestate was also highly diluted and hence difficult and costly to transport and apply to crops, so it was largely (60 %) discharged to the environment. The input volume of washing water should therefore be reduced to a ratio of 1:5. For better sustainability, appropriate technologies are needed to absorb nutrients from the digestate before discharge and to recycle these nutrients to crops.

Tải về